Frequently Asked Questions
Information and Facts
Pro-pri-o-cep-tive (prōprēəˈseptiv/adjective) relates to the stimuli that are produced and perceived within an organism, inside our muscles themselves. It is literally the 'perception of oneself.' It works as a part of the quality control of our movements. When you try to thread a needle, for example, your brain proprioception sends commands to your muscles to control the movement and make sure that you will keep your hand at a steady pace in order to accurately pass that thread through the needle.
When that movement happens, your brain sends signals to the muscles and the muscles display very small motions and tremors that are impossible to see with the naked eye but can be sensed by the “speedometers” that exist in smartphones and tablets.
Those “speedometers” are called ‘accelerometers’ and ‘gyroscopes’, and they exist in standard mobile devices.
Actually, we do not even need motions to have the proprioceptive control; it functions at rest too.
NeuroPrint™ technology is based on the discovery that brains possess their own unique structural map.
Scientists from Carnegie Mellon University have studied distinct structural connections in the brain, known as “connectomes,” to prove what scientists have known to be true — the structural connections of our brain are unique to each individual. The connectomes of different brains are so distinct that they can be used to identify each person with 100% accuracy. With that being said, the interplay between the cortex and muscle in motor coordination, or motricity, can be detected by the accelerometer and gyroscope present in handheld devices like smartphones and tablets.
Those near-impossible to see motions, which are present whether we are moving or not, and originating in the brain, result in an identifiable 'print' that we have trademarked NeuroPrint™.
Passwords and pins are passé. A recent study shows that at least 770 million biometric authentication applications will be downloaded worldwide by 2019. The numbers are staggering, 65% of mobile transactions will be secured using biometrics by 2020 and 99% of smartphones will be biometrically enabled by 2021.
In the Internet of Things (IoT), it is reported that more than 20 billion objects may end up connected. All of these devices will either need many more passwords — which will be impossible to remember and/or hard to protect — or unique biometric information to identify us.
A simple Internet search shows that YouTube offers 340 tutorials on how to hack a fingerprint sensor. Anyone can find tutorials on how to fool biometric modalities such as facial recognition, voice recognition, and fingerprint. The media has published various stories on the fragility of current biometrics solutions.
There was the case where a German politician had his fingerprint replicated based on a picture taken on a smartphone when he was speaking at a conference. In 2017, a BBC reporter asked his twin brother to call the HSBC bank — a bank uses voice recognition in some of their systems — and he successfully was able to spoof the system. In addition, computer graphic imaging (CGI) compromises facial recognition. Recently, adversarial neural networks have been programmed to annihilate the training of another neural network that was trained to recognize faces at 98% accuracy. By removing just 3-5 pixels from a 10 million pixels image, accuracy fell to zero.
Moreover, all standard biometric technologies store files and run comparisons between the user and his/her setup file. Those files are either stored on the device, or on the Cloud. In cases of a hacking or a breach in a database, the files belonging to many users are compromised and lost. And this loss is permanent because one cannot obtain a new set of fingerprints, a new voice, or a new face.
The most important is that the technology does not operate with any storage data system. The entirety of the identification and authentication process stays exclusively with the person that needs to be identified or to have a transaction authorized. No personal information is transferred to third parties for whatever reason, thus preventing said third party from sharing, selling, or using any private information out of context.
Our team developed methods able to identify and neutralize any other physiological or behavioral signal in order to guarantee that only information sent by the brain is captured. When an individual holds a smartphone with our Touch Technology™, the authentication process takes place in 5 seconds by neutralizing other parts of the signal: physiological (heart beat), behavioral (individual’s pattern of motion) and contextual (being in a car or in a plane, for example).
1. Next to foolproof unique user identification (twins have differences too!)
2. Extremely low battery drain
3. Advanced and unique frictionless logins and authentications, which is a real advantage in terms of acceptance level for users in the banking industry.
4. Use of a live output, instead of a static feature like real fingerprints, iris, or facial scans.
5. Privacy-protecting technology: no need for centralized databases, no need for content-based information, no need for behavioral repertoires or profiles.
6. Strong encryption comes as a byproduct.
The first market ripe for this truly innovative technology is the banking and payments market, which spans across industries like m-commerce and m-payments. There is now an urgent need to deploy much stronger identity and authentication given the PSD2 (Payments Services Directive, Part 2) and GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) regulations.
Access control, IoT, health and automotive industries also require very strong biometric technology. Those needs met ideally with ascertain privacy, to be frictionless, and non-hackable, or spoofable. At this point in time, industry-standard fingerprints, iris scanners, voice and even face recognition have been hacked or spoofed.
Finance is the most mature biometrics market outside of the government. That is logical: the first thing that most people want to protect is their money. Financial institutions have been early adopters of cybersecurity, and biometrics will be no exception. The perception of security is comforting to banks’ customers, and biometrics can enhance that comfort level. Passwords are stolen. Cash dispensers are compromised with card skimmers and pinhole cameras. Charge card fraud escalates at the point of sale. Protection that was once strong is now weak. Biometrics can restore that strength: those attacks are tougher if the thief must also possess the victim’s biometric identity. Financial institutions want that added protection for their clients and for themselves.
Many industries are getting close to adopting biometrics, but finance is there now. Cash machines with fingerprint readers, vein imaging, and iris imaging are increasingly deployed, especially where fraud is high and law enforcement is low. Innovative point-of-sale authorization requires a fingerprint, facial recognition, or even an electrocardiogram. And mobile banking can be authorized through many types of biometrics, only readable from the customer’s own device. Financial institutions understand the need for this added protection and are ready to act. A survey by Tractica forecasts that, starting from a base of $126 million in 2015, global biometrics finance revenue will reach $2.2 billion by 2024, with cumulative revenue for the 10-year period totaling $11.7 billion at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 38%.
In Europe, the PSD2 and the GDPR created an endless market biometrics, initiating a wave of innovation at financial services institutions. The Second Payment Services Directive (PSD2) that came into effect on January 12, 2017 must be implemented by banks across Europe. PSD2 will allow customers to pay directly from their account, and have parties retrieve their information for this purpose, rather than having to send their credit or debit card payments through a third party such as Visa. The directive is seen as fundamental to the adoption of open banking, which allows customers to share their personal data via open application programming interfaces (APIs). GDPR is the EU regulation in place to protect customers’ data, failure to meet its requirements can result in fines of up to 4% of global turnover. In this scenario, biometrics is core for the implementation of the PSD2 for both financial organizations and its customers.
Recently, a report from Juniper Research predicts the next biggest shift in mobile payment security will be towards software-based methods, which rely on standard smartphone components. The research forecasts that users of these methods will increase from an estimated 429 million in 2018 to over 1.5 billion in 2023.
All other biometric technologies are competitors, some have existed on the market for a long time and have an established position but are becoming increasingly incumbent and will face disruption.
In reality, we are the highest performing biometric technology when you consider the risks of hacking, spoofing, and level of friction. There is one absolute advantage that Aerendir™ offers that is unmatched by any other rival: with live physiology, there is no way that a bot or a robot can impersonate a human. This question becomes more relevant with the advances in AI technology.
The world is becoming digital heading at full speed towards automatization, computerization.
The trend is unstoppable, and all sectors of human activity will require an increasingly stronger identity and authentication technology, across all sectors from health, financial services, cryptocurrencies, automotive, to online public services.
Take just one sector like Internet of Things (IoT) and its outlook just for the coming 20 years: it aims to cover all aspects of domotics, autonomous objects, autonomous carriers (boats, drones), using billions of sensors and remote-control needs.
The 2018 Cybersecurity Predictions by Aon’s Cyber Solutions finds hackers are poised to target small businesses that use IoT technology to gain access to data from larger global firms in 2018. The 2018 Cybersecurity Predictions by Aon’s Cyber Solutions predicts a small business IoT breach will create a domino effect that damages a larger company.
The report also found that while 55 percent of small businesses were breached between 2015 and 2016, only a small minority see cybersecurity as a critical issue. This is despite the fact that the overall money spent on cybersecurity in 2017 was $86.4 billion, an increase of 7 percent over 2016.